others compare two treatment groups, each being a control for the other.»

and • provides information on costs and financial impact. Note 2: The report may optionally discuss organisational considerations. Note 3: A “mini-HTA” may be as rigorous as an HTA report but typically has a restricted scope and so is quicker to produce. Note 4: Related terms include health technology, HTA report, rapid review, level of evidence

parallel group trial

Alternate spelling: p-value In hypothesis testing, the probability that a parameter to be tested has a value as extreme or more extreme than the value that would be observed if the null hypothesis were true. Note: If the p value associated with the statistical test is equal to or greater than the alpha level that was determined (0.01 or 0.05, for example), this means that the association or difference observed may be due to chance and that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. However, if the p value is less than the alpha level that was determined, the association or difference is statistically significant, and the null hypothesis is rejected.